How temperature makes moth muscle bifunctional.

Temperature is one of the most important variables affecting an animal’s physiology. Animal’s thermoregulate in a variety of ways from behaviorally seeking out warmer or cooler parts of their habitat to having extensive heat exchange strategies in their circulatory systems. Large moths like Manduca sexta typically spend the first moments before flight performing a behavior […]

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Precision phase control in flight muscles

The established perspective of flight control in insects holds that their remarkable maneuverability arises from neural modulation of relatively small steering muscles acting in concert with the regular, clock-like activation of larger power muscles. Yet the power output of these main muscles is very sensitive to subtle timing changes in neural activation. To test if […]

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An intact-limb workloop reveals how cockroach muscle changes function

In the previous project we altered the commands the cockroach’s brain was sending to its muscle in real-time while the animal was running or maintaining its posture. We found that the same muscle could have three different function even when activated by the same commands. These differences seemed to arise for the mechanical context in […]

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